What is a gum elastic bougie?
The gum elastic bougie is a urinary catheter that was originally used for dilation of urethral strictures. This catheter was used as an endotracheal tube introducer (to facilitate difficult tracheal intubation) by Sir Robert R. Macintosh2in 1949.
How do you insert Bougie?
Bougie-assisted surgical airway
- use scalpel to incise through cricothyroid membrane.
- pass bougie through incision alongside the scalpel which is used as a guide into the trachea until hold up at at the carina is achieved.
- pass endotracheal tube over bougie into trachea.
What does a stylet do?
The stylet is a rigid but malleable introducer which fits inside the endotracheal tube and allows for manipulation of the tube shape; to facilitate passage of the tube through the laryngeal inlet.
What is the primary indication for tracheostomy?
General indications for the placement of tracheostomy include acute respiratory failure with the expected need for prolonged mechanical ventilation, failure to wean from mechanical ventilation, upper airway obstruction, difficult airway, and copious secretions (Table 1).
What are the contraindications of tracheostomy?
The only absolute contraindication for tracheostomy is skin infection and prior major neck surgery which complete obscures the anatomy .
Where do you listen after intubation?
The presence of an enlarging abdomen or audible air inflation into the stomach with each positive-pressure ventilation may be the initial sign of an ET tube in the esophagus or an esophageal intubation. The next auscultation points are located at the chest wall lateral to the nipples.
Which method of ventilation controls the rate of breathing?
Assist-Control (AC) mode is one of the most common methods of mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. AC ventilation is a volume-cycled mode of ventilation. It works by setting a fixed tidal Volume (VT) that the ventilator will deliver at set intervals of time or when the patient initiates a breath.