What are some examples of Exotoxins?

What are some examples of Exotoxins?

Examples include the diphtheria exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheria, the cholera exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, certain enterotoxins that cause loss of electrolytes and water resulting in diarrhea, the pertussis exotoxin produced by Bordetella pertussis, shiga toxin, produced by species of Shigella …

How many types of Exotoxins are there?

There are three main types of exotoxins: superantigens (type I toxins); exotoxins that damage host cell membranes (type II toxins); and A-B toxins and other toxin that interfere with host cell function (type III toxins). The body's major defense against exotoxins is the production of antitoxin antibodies.

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What is an example of an endotoxin?

Although the term "endotoxin" is occasionally used to refer to any cell-associated bacterial toxin, in bacteriology it is properly reserved to refer to the lipopolysaccharide complex associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Neisseria, …

What is Endotoxin made of?

Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen and is a component of the exterior cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, like E. coli (see image). Endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide or LPS. LPS consists of the lipid A portion containing fatty acids and disaccharide phosphates, core polysaccharides and the O-antigen (see image).

How do Exotoxins benefit bacteria?

Exotoxins (usually from Gram-positive bacteria) are secreted from viable bacteria and are potent toxins. Some act directly on cells to cause cytolysis; others act via the A-B toxin system and bind to cell membranes with a receptor (B subunit) and deliver a second toxic molecule (A subunit) into the cytoplasm.

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Which are characteristics of Exotoxins?

Exotoxins are usually heat labile proteins secreted by certain species of bacteria which diffuse into the surrounding medium. Endotoxins are heat stable lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes which form structural components of cell wall of Gram Negative Bacteria and liberated only on cell lysis or death of bacteria.

What are Exotoxins composed of?

Exotoxins are toxic substances secreted by bacteria and released outside the cell. Whereas Endotoxins are bacterial toxins consisting of lipids that are located within a cell.

Do all bacteria produce Exotoxins?

Exotoxins are usually secreted by bacteria and act at a site removed from bacterial growth. However, in some cases, exotoxins are only released by lysis of the bacterial cell.

What type of bacteria produce endotoxins?

Although the term "endotoxin" is occasionally used to refer to any cell-associated bacterial toxin, in bacteriology it is properly reserved to refer to the lipopolysaccharide complex associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Neisseria, …

Is tetanus toxin an endotoxin?

Exotoxins are produced by bacteria and diffuse into surroundings, e.g. tetanus toxin, or can be ingested preformed, e.g. botulinum toxin. Endotoxins are released into the surrounding tissue only when the bacteria break down. They are lipopolysaccharides and form part of the cell wall, e.g. coliform endotoxins.

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Are endotoxins or Exotoxins more dangerous?

Exotoxins are lethal even in small quantities. Fortunately, there are vaccines available to fight them. On the other hand, endotoxins are less lethal but can cause fever to the host. Exotoxins are secreted by bacteria and release outside the cell whereas endotoxins are bacterial toxins located within the cells.

What is Toxigenesis?

Toxigenesis, or the ability to produce toxins, is an underlying mechanism by which many bacterial pathogens produce disease.

Where do neurotoxins come from?

It is a cyanotoxin produced by at least four different genera of cyanobacteria, and has been reported in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and New Zealand. Toxic effects from anatoxin-a progress very rapidly because it acts directly on the nerve cells (neurons).